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  • Aerospace engineers research, design and manufacture aircraft, satellites, missiles and space vehicles. They may be specialist mechanical, electrical or electronics engineers and they might specialise in airframes, hydraulics, engines or materials and structures.
  • Aerospace engineering technicians may work as specialist engineering technicians - building and maintaining aircraft systems and components such as the fuselage, wings, engines, landing gear, brakes, flying controls and environmental systems. Others may be electrical or electronics technicians - installing and testing electrical and electronic systems used in navigation, communications and flight control.


  • Chemical engineers are involved in designing processes and production methods to transform raw materials into a wide range of products. Oil, for example, can be used to make fuels, plastics, textiles and cosmetics.  
  • Biochemical engineers are specialist chemical engineers who design processes involving biological changes for example in pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs and the treatment of waste.
  • Chemical engineering technicians support the work of chemical engineers. They can work in a range of engineering areas such as research and development, design, construction, operations and maintenance.


  • Electrical engineers are involved in the research, development and operation of electrical machinery and equipment. Many industries rely heavily on electrical engineers and technicians, including the manufacturing industry and the transport industry (railways, ships, aircraft and road vehicles). Electrical engineers are also vital in the development of communications, radar and instrumentation systems.
  • Electrical engineering technicians build, operate and maintain electrical equipment, such as generators and transformers and motors that produce and distribute electricity to homes, offices, factories, schools and hospitals. They also support the work of electrical engineers.
  • Electronics engineers and technicians may work on the development, installation and maintenance of equipment for a wide range of sectors including hospitals, manufacturing, transportation systems, IT, robotics and the aerospace industry.  


  • Materials engineers and technicians specialise in understanding the structure, properties and processing of a wide range of materials. Materials scientists explore why each material behaves the way it does, and materials engineers and technicians exploit these properties to make a material better, cheaper or more useful. Engineers and technicians usually work as part of a team of scientists, engineers and technicians from different disciplines.

It is also possible to specialise in a specific material such as polymers or metals and job titles for specialisms include polymer technologist and metallurgist.


Mechanical engineering is a very broad area of engineering as it is about designing, constructing, maintaining and operating just about anything that has a moveable part, for example, producing machines for use in the manufacturing sector.

  • Mechanical engineers and technicians may be involved in designing, finding solutions to technical problems, using new technologies when they become available and planning and designing new production processes. They need to be able to work alongside electrical, civil and construction engineers and technicians as well as those in the nuclear and medical fields.


  • Clinical engineers design, develop and maintain the instruments and equipment such as heart rate monitors, scanners and x-ray machines that medical specialists use to carry out complex medical procedures and diagnose medical conditions. They also use engineering to help improve the treatment of disease, and the rehabilitation of patients. Some work closely with patients and professional medical staff.